- Leaders can navigate groups by understanding the psychology of group members and the challenges they face.
- It's crucial to acknowledge the impacts of inclusion and exclusion on group members.
- Dr. Jack Gibb’s “TORI” model explores how to foster trust, openness, and interdependence in group settings.
- Understanding parallel tracks—task and process—can lead to successful outcomes in groups.
For most people, life oscillates between solitude and socializing with others, whether one-on-one or in small groups. This article explores understanding group dynamics, whether in social settings or when working towards a goal. It also delves into strategies for enhancing group effectiveness and achieving better experiences or goals.
Research indicates that being excluded from groups triggers a neural response (Eisenberger, 2003); it’s painful to be left out. Group experiences are also crucial for providing support and shaping beliefs, as demonstrated in Festinger’s research on social comparison (Festinger, 1954).
Being able to navigate or lead a group effectively towards a better experience or goal achievement is a significant advantage. We will explore the dynamics of group interactions and our roles within them.
First, let’s consider the mindset of a group member. Common concerns include:
- Will I fit in?
- Will I be seen and heard?
- Will this benefit me and the group?
Underlying these concerns are foundational questions about safety, trust, and shared perspectives. We often grapple with the desire to fit in and the need to stand out, which is driven by our egos. These conflicting desires can be counterproductive.
Moreover, misbehavior in groups is common. We may dominate conversations, push for our solutions, or rush to conclusions, often overlooking sound processes. Conversely, groupthink can lead to conformity, where challenging the status quo is avoided for the sake of harmony.
The result is that many find group meetings unsatisfying and unproductive. The fear of exclusion keeps us engaged despite these frustrations.
How can we improve this dynamic? Let’s explore.
Consider a case study: a school aiming to enhance its teaching methods, student focus, and inclusivity. The leadership team is evaluating the school’s century-old practices. As their consultant, I’ve learned that team members in private discussions have expressed doubts about changing the school’s established culture. Concerns about reactions to curriculum changes from the board, prestigious colleges, and parents are prevalent. They question the safety of such discussions within the team and the willingness of leaders to abandon traditional methods. Yet, without open dialogue, the school cannot address its real challenges and opportunities.
Dr. Jack Gibb’s “TORI” model from his book Trust is a helpful framework. “T” stands for trust, reflecting the psychological safety needed for open dialogue. “O” represents openness to discussing challenges and solutions. “R” is for relating, focusing on building relationships based on trust and openness. Finally, “I” stands for interdependence, encouraging the group to prioritize collective goals over personal views.
A group leader must balance goal-focused and process-focused agendas. Gibb’s model suggests that addressing psychological safety, trust, and open issue resolution is as important as the task at hand.
Another concept is the “ground of health,” the foundation of trust and positivity that enables group members to contribute effectively. Understanding these parallel tracks—task and process—and nurturing essential group elements can lead to successful outcomes and positive experiences. We all seek fulfilling interactions and achievements in groups. By incorporating these principles, we can transform group experiences.
This approach outlines what should happen in a group and highlights the absence of critical elements when things go awry. Give it a try and see the difference in leading a group towards a more positive outcome.
Eisenberger N. I., Lieberman M. D., Williams K. D. (2003). Does rejection hurt? An FMRI study of social exclusion. Science 302, 290–292.
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–140.
Gibb, J. (1978). Trust: A New View of Personal and Organizational Development. The Guild of Tutors Press.